=- Islamic History: 570 - 595 -=

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=- Islamic History: 570 - 595 -=

Post by *LosT* on Fri Jul 30, 2010 10:02 pm

Assalam o alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu
JazakALLAH KHAIR for reading..!
May ALLAH Subhana wa ta'ALA bless you and whoeva belongs to you
Ameen Sum Ameen

Islamic History: 570 - 595

570 :

The Birth of Muhammad(saws)
The Prophet Muhammad was born in Makkah of the Hashim clan, belonging to the tribe of Quraish. His mother, Amina, was the daughter of Wahb, and his father was Abdullah,
who died before his birth. He came under the care of his paternal
grandfather Adbul Muttalib, who was about seventy years old. At the age
of six, he lost his mother. After the death of his grandfather, when
Muhammad was eight years old, he was entrusted to his uncle, Abu
talib, who had become the new head of the clan, and grew up in his home.
The Byzantine and Persian Empires Bordering Arabia
After the death of Emperor Theodosius I in 395, the Roman Empire
was partitioned into western and eastern halves between his sons
Honorius and Arcadius respectively. In 476, however, the western Roman
Empire collapsed, abandoning Britain, Gaul, Spain and part of Italy to
the barbarians. In contrast, the eastern half of the empire, comprising
the wealthier and more civilized provinces of Greece, Egypt, Syria and
Asia Minor, was not only able to sustain the loss of the West but had
flourished independently since then. The Eastern Roman, or Byzantine,
Empirehad its capital at Byzantium(Constantinople). The other Great
Power was Persia, and the boundary between the two ran from the Caucasus
to the Upper Euphrates(roughly coinciding with the present border
seperating Turkey and Syria from Persia and Iraq), leaving the
ArabianPeninsula, which was mostly tractlessdesertat the time, is the
largest in the world having an area of about one million square miles.
The capital of the Persian Empire was at the ancient city of
Ctesiphon(known as Medain in Arabic) on the Tigris, some twenty miles
southeast of the site where the city of Baghdad was later to be founded
in 762.
The Byzantine Empire was founded on Roman law and adminstration,
Greek Language and civilization and Christain religion and moral values.
The Church playeda powerful role but it also became a weakening factor
in the Empire because of the dogmatic conflict of Christology within it.
Greek became the official language of theRoman Empire during the reign
of Emperor Heraclius(r.610-41); Christainity was made the state
religion by Emperor Theodosius I(r. 379-95). Constantine I(r. 306-37),
the first Christain Roman Emperor, had, of course, already paved the way
for a Christain State by a number of important stepssuch as the Edict
of Milan in 313, declaring Sunday as a day of rest in 321, presiding
over the ecumenical Council of Nicea in 325, and founding of
Constantinople(formerly Byzantium) in 330 as a "Christain City" and his
permanent capital. But, contrary to a common belief, he did not make
Christainity the religion of the Empire, which was done later by
Theodosius I. Constantine himself was baptized shortly before his
Makkah, Center of Caravan Trade Route
There had been a long struggle for territory between the two
mighty and rival empires, the Byzantine and Persian or
Sasanid(Zoroastrian), as a result of which the overland trade routes
through Persia had been broken. An alternative route, though not a
direct one, had been found through Arabia for trade between the East and
the Mediterranean. A part of this route was by sea to the Yemen port
Adan and a part overland to Damascus and Gaza, via Makkah, along the
west coast of the peninsula. There was extensive caravan trade between
Yemen and the markets of Syria, and Makkah, which was a staging post,
became a prosperous commercial center and the metropolis of Arabia. It
also had a pagan shrine and sanctuary called Ka'aba, which was famous
throughout Arabia and assured the safety of those who came to buy and
sell at the trade fairs held there. It attracted a large number of
pilgrims to perform idolatrous rites. In this way, the shrine, situated
a few steps away from the famous spring Zamzam, played an important
role in the economic and commercial life of Makkah which was run by a
small group of rich merchants.
Geography and Chief Clans of Makkah
Makkah itself stood in a narrow, barren valley, surrounded by
steep, bare hills. Its food supply came from the fertile fields of
Taif, a town forty miles to the southeast. Water was also scarce, its
main source of supply being the Zamzam, although there were other wells
located outside the town. The free air of the open desert was thought
healthier than the suffocating heat of this dusty and congested little
town. It was, therefore, a widespread custom for people to give their
children to be suckled by women of the neighboring tribes in the desert.
Muhammad thus spent his early childhood in the care of a woman
of the Sa'd tribe outside Makkah, after which he returned to his mother,
but she died within a year, leaving him an orphan.
Makkah was inhabited mainly by the tribe of Quraish, which
consisted of, among others, two prominent clans - the Hashim, headed by
Abdul Muttalib, and the Umayya. The Hashim clan was entrusted with
the duties related to the maintenance of the Ka'aba and the management
of the Pilgrimage, while the Umayya clan had hereditary leadership in
war. It was in the exercise of this last right that Abu Sufyan(ra),
leader of the Umayya clan, had overall command of the Makkan forces
against the Muslims in later battles. Both clans were engaged in trade,
the Umayya clan much more so than the Hashim.
Christains and Jews in Arabia
After Christainity became the official religion of the Roman
Empire in 381,it began to penetrate Arabia, slowly, but still posing a
challenge to Arabian paganism. However, in the succeeding centuries,
the Byzantine Orthodox Church no longer remained a religious unit but
was bitterly divided into mutually hostile groups differing in their
intrepretation of the Incarnation. The Nestorian Christains were
persecuted and driven out of the Roman Empire altogether in the middle
of the fifth century. These Greek refugees were welcomed in Persia as
victims of the Byzantines, whom the Persians regarded as their main
enemies. The Nestorian conducted avigorous missionary campaign along
the Euphrates and the northern part of the Persian Gulf andsuceeded in
converting many Arabs in those regions. Even the last ruler ofthe Arab
Lakhmid Dynasty, Numan III(r. c.580-605), who ruled the north-eastern
periphery of Arabia, became a Nestorian Christain. On the north-western
side, the Ghassan Arab, tribe living along the border with Syria, had
also become Christain by the middle of the sixth century, but they
professed Monophysite Christainity, which was condemned as heretical by
the Orthodox Church and bitterly opposed by the Nestorians.
In fact, both the Persian and Byzantine Empires maintained the
Arab satellite states of Lakhm and Ghassan respectively to protect their
open southern flanks from Bedouin attacks.
The Lakhmids and the Ghassanids were recognized as clients by
these governments around the years 300 and 500 respectively. These
rival tribes not only provided buffer states for their respective
paymasters, but also engaged themselves in endless desert warfare,
carrying out raids against each other. Christain communities were also
founded in Yemen and Najran. In addition to the Christains, there were
many much older Jewish colonies in Arabia, founded mainly in Yemen and
Khaybar. There were three clans in Makkah who professed the Jewish
faith. Thus, while the tribes of the peninsula were still pagan and
worshipped idols, Judaism and Christainity had already established a
foothold inthe peninsula and penetrated some communities, particularly
along the fringes of the desert.
An Abyssinian Attempt to Destroy the Ka'aba
Abraha, the Christain Abyssinian governor of Yemen, invaded Hijaz
in 570 but retreated in disarray from a place a few miles from Makkah,
abandoning the original aim of the expedition, which was to destroy the
Ka'aba. Abraha himself died on returning to the Yemenite capital,
Sana. Thus the Ka'aba was saved, which was regarded as the fulfillment
of the prayer which its Keeper and Muhammed's grandfather, Abdul Muttalib, had made to God to defend His own House.*
It is the incident which is referred to
in Sura 105(The Elephant) in the Quran, so-called because of an elephant
being present in the Axumite army. The Arabs of Hijaz were greatly
impressed, because they had never seen an elephant before. So much
importance is given to this event that the year 570 is described as the
"Year of the Elephant" in some Arab chronicles.
It is not possible to ascertain the exact date of the
Prophet(saws)'s birth. He(saws) is said to have been born fifty-five
days after Abraha's attack on Makkah and in the firieth year of the
reign of Chosroes Anusharwan. The birth is also said have taken place
in the year of the third breaking of the Marib dam, situated sixty miles
east of Sana in Yemen and center of large irrigation system. From
these and other information, the year of the Prophet(saws)'s birth
is taken as 570 or 571

574 :

The Capture of Yemen by the Persians
The Abyssinians were expelled from Yemen by the Persians after fifty-two years of occupation, and Yemen came under Persian rule.

581 :

Exposure of Byzantine Border to Arabia
The ruling Prince of the Ghassan tribe, being a Monophysite
Christain, was arrested and taken to Constantinople for alleged treason.
The Byzantines withdrew their recognition of the Ghassan Dynasty,
which had been living along the Syrian border and protecting it in reurn
for a subsidy and other privileges. This left the tribe in defiance
and the desert border exposed to Bedouin attacks from Arabia.

595 :

Muhammad(Saws)'s marriage to Khadija(ra)
At the age of twenty-five, Muhammad(saws) married Khadija, a
forty-year-old wealthy widow, who was his only wife until her death in
619. This gave him financial security, enabling him to pursue his own
inclinations, which included long periods of introspection in solitude
and involvement in trade. They had two sons, who died in infancy, and
four daughtersn named Zaynad(ra), Ruqayya(ra), Fatima(ra) and Umm
Kulthum(ra). Of these, Ruqayya married Uthman ibn Affan(ra) and
Fatima(ra) married the Prophet(saws)'s cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib(ra);
Uthman and Ali later became the third(644-56) and fourth(656-61) Caliphs
respectively. Muhammed(saws) was survived only by her marriage to Ali
was of lasting importance, since the Prophet(saws)'s descendants from
this line have been especially revered.

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Re: =- Islamic History: 570 - 595 -=

Post by Noor'e Sahar on Sat Jul 31, 2010 4:29 am

Wa Alaikum salam wa rehmatulahi wa barakatuhu

Jazak Allah khair lost for sharing this informative n useful thread

May Allah SWT Bless you Ameen
khush rahi sada Ameen

Noor'e Sahar

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