Jahad an Nafz (Striving againts the Soul )

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Jahad an Nafz (Striving againts the Soul )

Post by Noor'e Sahar on Fri Aug 06, 2010 12:55 am

Want to Fight My Soul, so What is the Way?
By Nawwl Bin Abdullh
Adapted with slight modifications from a translation by Ab Iyd Amjad Rafq

All Praise is due to Allh the Rabb of all the Worlds and prayers and peace upon the best creation of Allh.
To proceed:
We hear many complaints from the people. Most of their complaints are
related to their souls, which command them what is evil. They also
complain about the evil of their actions. One of them says:

Indeed I have been put to trial with four, they did not afflict me
Except due to my misfortune and wretchedness
Ibls, the world, the soul and the desire
How will this end when they are my enemies, all of them

So we find some of them saying I have tried many times,
repeatedly, to turn my soul away from committing these specific acts of
disobedience but my efforts have failed.

Another one says: I tried to get my soul to
perform acts of obedience (to Allh), good and righteous deeds but I am
not able to remain firm upon them, I leave them so quickly.

And we hear a third one say: I have repented
from many evil actions and promised myself that I would not commit them
again. However after the passing of time and being occupied much it did
not take long before I returned to them. In fact I fell into others and
increased in them.

If we were to look at the condition of these people we would realise
that among the reasons for their not being able to dominate and control
their souls and not being able to remain firm upon what they have
promised themselves is their lack of striving against their souls. In
fact they have left the fetters and reins for the soul so that it leads
them and plays with them however it wills. The soul is such that if it
is not fought against and controlled it commands its possessor to commit
evil and obscene deeds. These people, because they have not fought
against their souls and controlled them in that which Allh loves and is
pleased with, are not able to remain constant in their (good) actions.
For this reason it is necessary for them to control their souls for
Allh's pleasure and His obedience. Not that it should control them and
as a result destroy them

It is vital that a person
launches a war against his soul. One which is not haphazard or aimless
but rather a firm and determined one in which he uses the weapons of
faith (mn), sincerity to Allh (ikhls), patience (sabr) and
supplication (du). He uses them until he is able to overcome this
mischievous enemy which is concealed between the two sides of his body
[the soul, which commands the evil]. As a result he tames and pacifies
it and makes it obedient, humble and submissive to the command of Allh.

For this reason we find that Ibn al-Qayyim (rh) says: Since the
jihd against the enemies of Allh outwardly (i.e. physically) is a
branch of the jihd of the servant against his own soul for the sake of
Allh...

The jihd that is greater and mightier than the jihd against the
disbelievers and pagans is the jihd of a person against his own soul
for the sake of Allh, just as the Messenger of Allh said: The Mujhid
is the one who struggles against his own soul in Allhs obedience.
[Tirmidh who said it was Hasan Sahh and Al-Albn said: Its isnd is
good]

And when a person is not able to struggle against his own soul and
overcome it in that which Allh loves, he will not be able to fight
against the external enemy, nor overcome it. How can he, when he is
defeated and weak, both mentally and spiritually, and cannot even gain
control of his own feeble soul?

Before entering into the discussion of how to fight against the soul
it is necessary to mention a little section about the soul and its
nature. Then we shall mention the cure for the soul and the way to
purify it from its desires and lusts, if Allh wills.

The Reality of the Soul


The soul continuously calls its owner to transgression, preference of
the world, the desires and love of the delights and pleasures. But
Allh calls His servant to fear of Him, awe of Him and forbids the soul
from its whim. He has prepared a mighty reward for the one who follows
His command. The Exalted said:

And as for the one fears the
standing in front of His Lord and restrains the soul from impure evil
desires and lusts, verily, Paradise will be his abode.
[Srah Nzit 79:40-41]

The soul in its essence calls and commands the evil. Allh the Exalted said:
Verily the (human) self is
inclined to evil, except when my Lord bestows His Mercy (upon whomsoever
He wills). Verily, my Lord is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful.
[Srah Ysuf 12:53]

The soul was originally created ignorant and given to transgression.
Knowledge, guidance and righteousness are things that befall it due to
inspiration from its Lord and then by the struggle against it by its
owner and his nurturing it and engaging it in jihd. Allh the Exalted
says:

And those who strive in Our way We shall guide them to our paths and verily Allh is with the doers of good (muhsinn). [Srah Ankabt 29:69]
Allh Azzawajall guaranteed the one whom He found trying and
striving (against his soul) that He will be with him, will help him and
will bring into reality his wish or desire (of domination over his
soul). What then can a man desire after that?

And Ibn al-Qayyim (rh) said: The
travellers to Allh, in all their different paths and diversity of
their ways are agreed that the soul is a barrier between the heart and
Allh and that it (the heart) will not come close to Him, the Sublime,
or arrive to Him except after killing his soul, abandoning it by
opposing it and being victorious over it

For this reason, it is obligatory upon us to fight and strive against
it in order to travel (by this striving) in the straight path and to
the clear success which Allh Azzawajall has prescribed for us and which
the best of the creation of Allh, Muhammad has explained to us.

Know that striving against the soul does not occur except by four
ways. Whoever follows them and applies them to his soul will have fought
against it and protected it with the help of Allh. Ibn al-Qayyim (rh)
has mentioned these ways and they are as follows:



Firstly: By holding the soul to account
Secondly:
By opposing it and not following its whims and desires
Thirdly:
By making it patient in Allhs obedience
Fourthly:

By making it patient in refraining Allhs disobedience



The First Way: Holding the Soul to Account


The destruction of the soul and the heart and their corruption is due
to the neglect of calling the soul to account. There are very few
amongst Allhs servants whom you will find calling their souls to
account. One will ask it constantly: What did I intend with that word of
mine, or that advice I gave, or when I called unto Allh or when I
commanded the good and forbade the evil (on a particular occasion)? Was
that word which my tongue engaged upon and which my mouth uttered a word
sincerely for Allh? Did I desire the Face of Allh with it? Or did I
desire a portion of the world with it? What did I desire with that
action, whether it was prayer, charity, fasting or putting and end to a
certain evil? What did I hope for from it and what was the desire behind
it? Did I hope for reward from Allh for it and His pleasure, or was my
hope for reward and praise from Allhs creation, showing off and
seeking to be heard of?

In such a way does he question his soul and hold it to account for
every word, movement and moment of rest. What did I hope for from it?
And what did I desire by it?

May Allh show mercy to Al-Hasan al-Basr who said: You will not
find a believer except that he is (constantly) holding his soul to
account. What did I intend with that word of mine? What did I intend
with my food? What did I intend with my drink?

Imm Ahmad wrote: The intelligent person is the one who controls his
own soul (calls it to account) and acts (in preparation) for what comes
after death..., and what is after death? After death is the barzakh.
After death there is accountability and punishment. After death are the
Scales (upon which the deeds are weighed) and the Sirt (the bridge over
Hellfire) and then it is either Paradise or Hellfire. So what have we
prepared for what comes after death?! ...and the incapable person is
the one who makes his soul follow its whim and has many expectations
from Allh.

Such a person is the one who says Allh will forgive me, Allh will
show mercy upon me, he covets all these things from Allh and yet he
does not perform the righteous actions and falls into many sins and acts
of disobedience. Righteous actions are one of the means of entering
Paradise. It is not sufficient for someone to have expectations (from
Allh) without making some effort and sacrifice and striving with his
soul to perform righteous actions. Allh Azzawajall frequently links
mn with righteous actions and it is also one of the ways of entering
into Paradise. We ask Allh to grant us His Gardens.

Umar ibn al-Khattb said: Call
your souls to account before you are called to account and weigh your
souls (i.e. your actions) before you are weighed for it will make the
accountability easier for you tomorrow if you call your selves to
account today
[Reported by Ahmad in his Musnad]

Mlik ibn Dnr (rh) said: May
Allh show mercy to a servant who said :Are you not the perpetrator of
this action? Are you not the perpetrator of that action? Then he
rebukes it, strikes it and confines it to the Book of Allh and is
becomes its master and guide.

How many souls are their who control and lead their owners into the
darkness and then into destruction and refuge is sought from Allh! Let a
person therefore, be the leader, the commander and the forbidder of his
soul and not the soul of him.

And Al-Hasan (rh) said: A believer is a guardian over his soul. He
calls his soul to account for the sake of Allh. The reckoning on the
Day of Judgement will be light upon a people who call themselves to
account in the world and the reckoning on the Day of Judgement will be
hard on a people who take this matter lightly.

And Ibn Kathr (rh) said: The believer (constantly) returns to his
soul (holding it to account) so he says: What did I intend by this
action?! What is for me and what is for it?! By Allh I shall never
return to it. If it is an act of disobedience for example, it is a way
of guarding his soul. He asks it constantly and calls it to account with
an intense and hard reckoning in this world so that the reckoning on
the Day of Judgement is easy.

How Do I Call Myself to Account?


Holding oneself to account is of two types: One before the action and the other after the action.
The First Type: It is necessary for the one who calls himself to
account before he engages upon saying something particular or a
particular action or any action for that matter, that he stops and looks
with clear insight, not with his whim or desire, at this action. Is
this action in itself good for him, will he acquire recompense and
reward for it from Allh? Or is this action disobedience which will lead
to earning evil and increasing ones burdens?

If he sees that this action is good and there is benefit in it for
his religion, his life and the Hereafter he then moves onto another
matter.

And this is to see whether Allhs Face, His pleasure and the home of
the Hereafter is desired by this action or is it merely for showing
off, fame and seeking to be heard of? If he had desired Allhs Face by
it then he should proceed with this action, whilst relying upon Allh
and seeking help from Him.

When he has finished from his action it is still necessary for him to
call himself to account after he has acted. This enables him to see
whether he made it sincerely and purely for Allh or whether he was
deceived (into thinking that it was) and satisfied with just merely
performing the action, perhaps due to the praise of people. Then he
forgets his initial desire and intention which was seeking the Face of
Allh. Was it better for him to perform that action or to fall short in
executing it and abandoning it?

For this reason we find that the Prophet has strongly encouraged us
to be quiet if we do not find any good and useful words to speak. He
said: Whoever believes in Allh and the Last Day let him speak good or
remain silent. [Reported by Bukhr and Muslim] Imm an-Nawaw said:
When a person desires to speak, if there is definite goodness in his
words for which he will be rewarded then let him speak and if it does
not appear to him that there will be good in his words and that he will
be rewarded then he should refrain from speaking.

When a servant is strict and hard upon himself in such a way he will
travel upon the path of goodness and success as a result of it. However,
if he abandons his soul and neglects it he will be lead to the path of
destruction and ruin by it, and into committing sins very easily without
having the desire to seek forgiveness and repent from them.

The Second Type: Calling the soul to account after the action has been completed. This itself is of three types:


The first: A person brings the soul to account for
an act of obedience which was performed and which fell short in
fulfilling Allhs right. This means that it was not performed in the
best possible way. The right of Allh upon the servant in every act of
obedience consists of six matters:

1. Sincerity in the action (for the sake of Allh alone),
2. Pure devotion to Allh in it,
3. Following and imitating the Messenger in it,
4. Seeing and observing excellence in it
5. Seeing Allhs Benevolence in it
6. Seeing ones shortcomings (in performing this action) after all of this.

So a person will call himself to account. Has he considered all these
things with care and attention, the way they ought to be? And did he
fulfil them all in this action?

The second: A person calls himself to account for
every action that he did, the abandonment of which would have been
better for him than actually doing it.

The third: A person calls himself to account for a
matter that is mubh (permissible - with no reward or punishment
resulting from it). Why did he do it? And did he desire the Face of
Allh and the home of the Hereafter by it so that he will have profited
and succeeded? Or did he desire by it, the world and its temporary
rewards and delights as a result of which he loses that success

A person will call himself to account so that one day when he is
sixty years old he will be counting his days and will find that they are
twenty-one thousand and six-hundred in number. He lets out a scream and
says: Woe be to me, I will meet my Lord with twenty-one thousand sins.

How will it be when there are thousands of sins in a day?! Then he falls to the ground unconscious, and dies.
Let us therefore, look at the strictness and intensity of the way he
called himself to account and the way in which he saw his sins to be
against him. What then, will our condition be?!

One amongst the Salaf would choose a certain time, late at night, to
call his soul to account. He would ask himself about the obligatory
duties first and if he found any deficiency in them, he would complete
them, either by fulfilling them or by making up for them.

Then he would call his soul to account with respect to the forbidden
matters since he did something which the Shareeah has forbidden or
which the Prophet () warned against. So he would make up for it by
seeking forgiveness from Allh and then being remorseful and repenting
from it.

Then he would hold his soul to account for its heedlessness. If he
had been heedless of what he had been created for he would make up for
it with the remembrance of Allh, directing his attention towards Him
and performing His worship. If he had been heedless with respect to a
certain sin and went on to commit it, he would return to Allh, seeking
forgiveness from Him, repenting to Him.

He then goes on to call himself to account about what he said and
uttered on a certain day, or to what his feet walked towards or what his
hands grasped or what his eyes saw or what his ears heard and so on. He
would therefore, see whether his action was in agreement with what
Allh is pleased with and whether he desired Allh with his action and
made it sincerely and purely for Him. Or did a blemish or impurity mix
with his action such as showing off or seeking to be heard of, or
opposing the command of Allh (in the way that he performed his action).

Therefore, he throws against every one of his actions or his words
two questions: For whom did I do it?! Was it for Allh or other than
Him? This a question about sincerity to Allh. The other question: How
did I do it?! Was it in agreement with the Book of Allh and the Sunnah?
Was it in agreement with the Sharah or did it oppose and contradict
the Sharah (this is a question about following and imitating the way
of the Messenger of Allh .

There are Great Benefits in Calling the Soul to Account


Amongst them are:
1. Realising the shortcomings and weaknesses of the
soul. Whoever does not know the weaknesses of his soul will not be able
to put an end to them.

We can observe this quality in our Pious Predecessors. Due to the
intensity with which they called their souls to account, they knew all
their shortcomings and faults. Ynus bin Ubaid said: Indeed, I know of a
hundred characteristics from among the characteristics of goodness and I
do not know whether I possess a single one of them. Therefore, we find
him to be the most knowledgeable of people of his own self. He knows
what his soul is in need of and what it hopes for and other such
matters.

And Muhammad bin Wsi said: If sins were to produce a smell, no one would be able to sit next to me
2. Knowing the right of Allh upon oneself. This
will instill in the servant hatred of his own soul and its contempt. It
will purify him from being amazed with his actions and also from showing
off. Ibn al-Qayyim said: Verily, hatred of the soul for the sake of
Allh is one of the characteristics of the Siddqn (the truthful and
the sincere).

Imm Ahmad has mentioned in his book az-Zuhd that Wahb (ibn Munabbah)
said: It has reached me that the Prophet of Allh, Ms, passed by a
man who was calling upon Allh and was humbling himself. He (Ms) said:
O my Lord, show mercy to Him as I have shown mercy to Him. Then Allh
inspired to him: If he calls upon me until his...... I would not respond
to Him until He looks at My right over Him.

Looking at the right of Allh opens the door towards submission,
humility and defeat in front of Allh. The one who reflects about the
condition of the people nowadays will find that most of them do the
opposite of this. They look at their own rights upon Allh, at their
needs from Him but do not look at the right of Allh upon themselves.

We will find one of them when he is inflicted with a calamity or
misfortune on account of what his own hands have committed, angry,
irritated and grumbling. He does not even ask his ownself: What is the
cause of this misfortune, this calamity? And he is not aware that it is
due to his sins and his disobedience to Allh.

Likewise we find that many amongst mankind have been cut off from
Allh and their hearts have been veiled from knowing Him. To Allh then,
is the complaint and there is no power nor movement except by Allh.

The Second Way: Struggling Against the Soul by Opposing it and not Following its Desires


Ibn Taymiyyah (rh) says: And this is by not following its desires
and opposing what the soul desires. Opposing the soul occurs by opposing
its desires and its desires do not arise except by following Shaytn.
Therefore it is vital to oppose Shaytn and seeking refuge in and
recoursing to Allh from his whisperings and his plans. Shaytn enters
upon the soul and penetrates into it with two matters or from two doors.
It is necessary for us to know them, oppose them and to close them
tight in the face of Shaytn the Accursed and Rejected:

The First: Due to excessiveness and squandering.
This happens by giving ones soul whatever it desires of food, speech,
sleep and other such matters which the soul makes its owner aspire for,
what it cannot do without and what it loves. Therefore it is incumbent
upon a person that he does not give his soul its need and desire in its
entirety. He should not be extravagant and excessive in giving it food,
sleep and other such delights and pleasures. When he shuts this door,
against his own soul and against Shaytn he will acquire peace and
security.

Thus, we will find that a person has been forbidden from excessive
food and speech, letting the gaze wander too much, mixing with people
and accompanying them in excess since giving the soul whatever it
desires is among the things which if done excessively and continuously
hardens to heart and makes it heedless. This leads to the hearts death
and refuge is sought from Allh! Thus, the door of fasting has been
opened and we have been urged to fast. Even voluntary fasting has been
strongly encouraged. Fasting puts an end to the desire and excessive
eating. Thus Islam has encouraged fasting and made it beloved to its
adherents.

Likewise, there is an excellence attached to the night prayer
(tahajjud). It prevents a person from excessive sleep. A person will
strive against his soul and wage war against it in order to pray during
the night and fast during the day. He will continue in this until his
soul submits and humbles itself to these acts of worship. The soul will
then find the joy and delight of fasting and praying at night.

It is also, from the wisdom of Islm that urges the Muslim to be
silent unless he has something beneficial to say. The Messenger of Allh
said: Whoever believes in Allh and the Last Day, let him speak good
or remain silent. Perhaps, due to his excessive speaking and shouting
he will not be on his guard from the danger of falling into backbiting,
lying, slandering and other such matters.

The Second: Being ignorant and heedless of Allhs
remembrance. Shaytn exhausts himself in gaining mastery over the soul
so that he can prevent it from Allhs remembrance. The one who
remembers Allh is in a strong fortress, protected from Shaytn as long
as he does not forget or become heedless. Whoever becomes heedless, he
will open up a small gap for the enemy by which he can get to him and
then penetrate into his soul and whisper to it. This is why there is a
strong encouragement and recommendation for making the various
supplications and reciting portions of the Quraan during every moment
and in every place until they become a sanctuary and a preventive
measure for the one who uses them.

There exist, for example, supplications for the evening, the morning,
for entering into the house and leaving it, for sleeping and awakening
and others besides them. Fighting against the soul occurs by checking
and curbing the defiance of its desires and its lusts. And with the
abundant remembrance of Allh a preventive barrier is set up against
every destructive lust or transgressing desire.

Ab Hafs said: Whoever does not oppose his soul at every moment and
situation and does not make it perform those things which it dislikes,
at all times, is deceived and has destroyed it (his soul).

Al-Hasan (rh) said: A believer becomes amazed with something (that
he likes) and says: By Allh, I desire you and you are certainly one of
my needs. But by Allh, there is no way towards you. How far you are,
there is a barrier between me and you!

A person knows what his soul wants and desires. It is therefore,
essential for him not to give it everything that it covets and desires.
It is also vital for him to confine and straiten his soul so that he
does not go to excesses in giving it what it seeks.

We know that Umar (ra), when his wife desired a sweet (dish), forbade
her from it because he knew than if she asks for a sweet (dish) today,
she will ask for something else tomorrow which is greater. So he closed
the door upon her at the very beginning. The condition of most people
however, is that a person will be generous to his soul and shower upon
his soul whatever it asks of him and even what it does not even ask of
him. So his soul becomes tired and fed up due to his extravagance and
excess. What is our condition then, when compared to that of our Pious
Predecessors? We direct our complaint to Allh!!

The Third Way: Making the Soul Patient in Allhs Obedience
The soul runs away often from some acts of worship because they are
amongst the things it does not desire. This continues due to certain
causes prevent a person from desiring these acts of worship. Amongst
them are laziness in performing acts of worship (such as prayer) and the
love of sleep. As a result, the opportunity to perform much worship
passes him by. It can also occur due to miserliness. A person will not
give the obligatory charity or other things which are required of him so
that they become endeared to the soul and the soul begins to aspire for
them after it had been fleeing from them.

It is vital that there is a spiritual war, which can be intense and
hard, but with a strong will, turning to Allh, making continuous du
(supplication) to Allh and requesting His help in this act of obedience
to Him, this matter will be made easy for him. And Allh will lighten
his burden for him until these acts (of worship) are beloved to the
soul.

All of this cannot occur except after fighting and struggling against
the soul. A person will find himself in many trials and intense battles
along with his capability of avoiding such actions. This means that a
person, even though he is in need and capable of fasting, will not fast
due to following his whims and even though he is capable he will not
pray and as a result please his desires and his soul which commands the
evil.

However, we find that another person fasts voluntarily, although he
is not in need of fasting voluntarily (to curb his desires) and neither
does his soul aspire towards fasting. Yet he still declares war upon his
soul and fights against it (with fasting and prayer) so that he makes
it do what he desires and not let it make him do what it commands and
desires.

Therefore, patience when accompanied with performing those actions
(such as prayer and fasting) upon which the soul perseveres is
considered the greatest and most perfect form of patience as Ibn
Taymiyyah (rh) has explained. And Ibn al-Qayyim (rh) said: Verily,
having patience in obedience (to Allh) occurs by performing an act of
obedience, then guarding it and being persistent in (performing) it.

This is the thing which very few amongst us are able to do, that we
show patience in continually observing obedience to Allh and persisting
in such obedience. This is because the soul gets bored with it and does
not have the desire to perform it another time. At this stage showing
patience and realising the great excellence this action has in the sight
of Allh is required. The actions most loved by Allh are the ones
which are performed continuously, even if they are small actions. The
Messenger of Allh used to love, when he performed an action, that he
remained constant upon it.

The saying of the Prophet to Abdullh bin Umar: Do not be like so
and so who would pray during the whole of the night and then abandoned
it, was nothing but a means of encouraging him to be constant in his
good actions. It is also necessary that along with being continuous in
ones actions, a person also beautifies them and excels in them and this
occurs with having Ikhls (sincerity) and dings them in accordance with
the command of Allh and His Messenger .

The Fourth Way: Fighting Against the Soul and Making it Patient in Refraining from Allhs Disobedience
This means that a person holds his soul to account in order to make
himself distant from falling into disobedience while also bearing in
mind that the reasons and motives of falling into the sin are numerous.
Among such reasons are the strength of ones youthfulness and manhood,
since the youth are known to love the pleasures and joys of this world.

When a person turns away from an act of disobedience even though he
has the opportunity and is capable of performing it, he has turned his
soul away from the unlawful and has opposed his soul, pleasing Allh
thereby, and being obedient to Him. He has struggled with his soul and
fought against it with a strong and intense battle. As a result of this
he overcomes and dominates it and he will receive success and prosperity
in this world and the Hereafter with the permission of Allh.

And Shaikh-ul-Islm (rh) said: Showing
patience in (avoiding) the unlawful things is more excellent than
showing patience in calamities and afflictions. Whoever abandoned an act
of disobedience although he was capable of performing it is one whose
fight against his soul is most intense and most excellent. This is
because he left a thing which his soul tempted him with and made him
aspire for. So he opposed it and was capable of defeating it.

This is why the youth who is tempted by a women of rank and beauty
and says to her: I fear Allh will be amongst the seven whom Allh
will shade on the Day when there will be no shade except for His,
because he prevented his soul from committing what it desired and wanted
and at the same time he was capable of performing it.

Likewise, the one who lowers his gaze although he has the opportunity
and capability to look at something unlawful is amongst those who fight
against and deter their souls. Along with that he will receive a mighty
reward in this world and the hereafter.

Also, the one who keeps his hearing away from the forbidden things
such as music and singing, backbiting, slandering and lying, is a
fighter against his soul and he will obtain a reward from Allh if his
action was to please Allh.

A similar analogy can be made for every matter that makes a person
distant from his Lord or earns His anger. It is vital for a person to be
far from it and to oppose his soul in performing it.

And how excellent is the saying:
Oppose the soul and shaytn and protect it (the soul)
They (seem to) give you sincere advice, so restrain them both

Therefore, a person must oppose his soul and call it to account
constantly. As a result of this he must make it patient in doing acts of
obedience and refraining from acts of disobedience. He should also make
it patient in being continuous in performing the righteous actions so
that he ascends with them, to the highest of positions, to the pleasure
of Allh and to everlasting happiness.

I ask Allh, the Most High and the Powerful to benefit us with
what He has taught us and to teach us that which will benefit us and
that He forgives our mistakes. We ask him to help us against our souls
and that He does not leave us to rely upon ourselves for a single
moment, verily, He is capable of that and Allh knows best.

Prayers and peace upon our Prophet Muhammad and upon his family.
Written by
Nawwl bint Abdillh

May Allh forgive her, her parents and all the Muslim men and women.


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