Patience Solution for life's sorrows

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Patience Solution for life's sorrows

Post by Noor'e Sahar on Fri Aug 06, 2010 1:00 am

The Virtues of Patience



Imm Ahmad (d.241H) said:
Allh has mentioned sabr (patient perseverance) in over ninety places in His Book. [2]
And there occurs in the authentic hadth: Sabr (patient perseverance) is light. [3] The Prophet sallallhu alayhi wa sallam also said: No one has been given anything more excellent and more comprehensive than sabr.[4]
Umar - radiallhu anhu - said:
We considered the best part of our lives to be that in which there was sabr.[5]
Al - radiallhu anhu - said:
Indeed sabr is from mn (faith). Its position is
like that of the head with respect to the rest of the body. Then he
raised his voice and said: Verily, there is no mn (faith) for the one who has no sabr.[6]
The Meaning of Patience


The word sabr (in the Arabic language) is from sabara - to be patient and to persevere, and it indicates to holding back and restraining oneself. (In the Sharah
sense) it implies: restraining the soul from being agitated;
restraining the tongue from complaining and restraining the hands from
slapping the cheeks, tearing the clothes and doing other similar
actions. This has been mentioned by Ibn al-Qayyim (d.750H). [7]

And know that sabr (patient perseverance) is of three kinds: [i]sabr whilst (fulfilling) the orders of Allh, [ii] sabr whilst (abandoning and keeping away) from the prohibitions of Allh, and [iii] sabrwith the Decree of Allh with respect to afflictions and difficulties.
Guidance for the Hearts


Allh - the Most High - says: And whosoever believes in Allh, He guides his heart aright. And Allh has full knowledge over everything. [8]
And this yah begins with: No affliction occurs, except by the permission of Allh. About this Ibn Abbs said: By the command of Allh - meaning: by His Will and His Power. [9]
So the meaning of this yah is: No affliction occurs except by His Mashiyyah (Will), His Irdh(Desire) and His Hikmah (Wisdom) - as Allh says: No
affliction occurs upon the earth, nor in yourselves, except that it is
written before We bring it into existence. Indeed, this is easy for
Allh.
[10] And Allh says: Give glad-tidings to those who have sabr.
Those who - when afflicted with a affliction - say: Indeed, we belong
to Allh and to Him shall we return. They are those on whom are the
blessings from their Lord and His mercy. They are the ones who are
guided.
[11]
And Allhs saying: And whosoever believes in Allh, He guides his heart aright.
means: Whosoever - when afflicted with a affliction - knows it is by
the Decree of Allh and His Power, and thus patiently submits to it,
then Allh rewards such a person by guiding their heart aright. So this
is the root cause of all happiness, and the foundation of excellence in
this world and in the Hereafter. And Allh promises such a person (a
reward) for what He has taken from them. [12] And Allhs saying: And AIlh has full knowledge over everything. is a reminder that such a affliction is by His Knowledge which necessitates His Wisdom, which obligates sabr and being contented with His Decree.
Ab Dhibyn said: We were with Alqamah [13] and this yah was recited to him: And whosoever believes in Allh, He guides his heart aright.
So he said: It is the man who - when afflicted with an affliction -
knows it is from Allh, so he is pleased with it and submits to it.
[14]
In the above narration is a proof that actions are a part of mn
(faith).
Sad ibn Jubayr (d.104H) said about: And whosoever believes in Allh, He guides his heart aright. He said: That (at the time of a affliction) a person says: Indeed, to Allh we belong and to Him shall we return.
In the above yah is an explanation that having sabr is the cause for the hearts guidance; this being the reward for the sbir (the one having patience).
Complaining against the Decree of Allh


The Prophet sallallhu alaybi wa sallam said: Two characteristics of the people are from disbelief: attack on ones genealogy and bewailing the deceased. [15] Meaning: that these two characteristics are actions ofkufr (disbelief), since these are actions of jhiliyyah
(pre-Islmic ignorance) which continue to remain in people. And no one
will remain safe from them, except for the one to whom Allh grants
safety, and the one to whom Allh grants knowledge and mn (faith).
However - it should be known - that whosoever has within him a branch of kufr (disbelief), then it does not cause the person to become a kfir (disbeliever) with absolute kufr; just as a person who has within him a branch of mn (faith), is not called a mumin (believer) with absolute mn . Indeed , there is a difference between the word kufr having the definite article attached to it (i.e. al-kufr) and the word kufr without the definite article - as occurs in the saying of the Prophet: There is nothing between a servant and between al-kufr and ash-shirk, except abandoning the Prayer. [16]
The saying of the Prophet sallallhu alayhi wa sallam: Attack on ones geneology,
means: finding faults and defects. Entering into this also is a
persons false denial of another mans genealogy by saying: This is not
the son of such and such, and the person knew that this denial was
false.
And his saying: And bewailing the dead. means: raising the
voice in lamentation and wailing and in enumerating the virtues of the
deceased. All of this is a form of complaining against the Decree of
Allh and is against having sabr - such as the saying of the one bewailing: He was my close friend, or he was my aid and supporter.
So in the above hadth is a proof for the obligation of having sabr, and a proof that there is a type ofkufr (disbelief) which does not cause its doer to become a kfir.
Tender Hearts and Compassionate Tears


The Prophet sallllhu alayhi wa sallam said: He is not one of us who strikes the cheeks, tears the clothes and calls with the call of jhiliyyah (pre-Islmic ignorance).
[17] This is one of those textual threats related in the Revelation. It
is related from Sufyn ath-Thawr and Imm Ahmad that they disliked
explaining the meaning of such threats, so that people would have fear
of committing such actions and would remain far away from them. This
narration is a proof that the actions mentioned are against complete mn (faith).
Al-Hfidh Ibn Hajar (d.852H) whilst explaining the saying Whosoever strikes the cheeks,
said: The cheeks have been particularised since that is the most
common place of striking. However, striking any other part of the face
is just the same. [18]
The saying of the Prophet: Tearing the clothes, implies: tearing open the clothes from the chest. This was the practice of the people of jhiliyyah (pre-Islmic ignorance) as an expression of grieving for the deceased.
Ibn Taymiyyah (d.728H) said about: And calls with the call of
jhiliyyah.
: It means to wail over the deceased. [19]
Ibn al-Qayyim - rahimahullh - said:
Included in calling with the call of jhiliyyah is calling to tribalism, partisanship and party-spirit; being zealous and bigoted towards ones madhhab
(school of thought), party, or Shaykh; giving precedence to one over
the other and calling to this; and forming alliances and enmity based
upon this. All of this is from the calls of jhiliyyah.
Ab Ummah relates the the Messenger of Allh sallallhu alayhi wa sallam cursed the woman who strikes her face, tears her clothes and wails over the deceased. [20]
So this is a proof that these matters are from the major sins. Also,
whosoever laments lightly-without being impatient with Allhs Decree,
nor complaining against it, and says only that which is true - then such
lamenting is acceptable. Just like the lamenting of Ab Bakr [21] and
Ftimah [22]radiallhu anhum when the Messenger of Allh sallallhu alayhi wa sallam died. There is a text also from Imm Ahmad concerning this. [23]
However, this is not a proof for the prohibition of crying, since
there occurs in an authentic narration: That when the Messenger of
Allh sallallhu alayhi wa sallam came to know about the death of his son Ibrhm, he said: The
eyes shed tears, the heart grieves, but we do not say except that which
pleases our Lord. O Ibrhm! It is because of you that we are
grieving.
[24]
In the two Sahhs Usmah bin Zayd relates: That the Messenger of Allh sallallhu alayhi wa sallamwent
to one of his daughters, who had with her a young child that was dying.
So she raised the child and placed the child in his lap, who was
gasping for air. On seeing this, tears rolled down the Prophet sallallhu alayhi wa sallams eyes. So Sad said: O Messenger of Allh! What is this? So he replied:
This is mercy which Allh puts into the hearts of His servants. And
Allh is merciful to those of His servants that show mercy to others.
[25]
Trials Faced by the Believers


The Messenger of Allh sallallhu alayhi wa sallam said: Whenever
Allh intends to do good to a servant, He hastens to punish him in this
world. And whenever Allh intends evil for a servant, He postpones the
punishment until the Day of Judgement.
[26]
His saying: Whenever Allh intends to do good to a servant, He hastens to punish him in this world.
means: that he is punished by being inflicted with afflictions and
difficulties due to the sins he has committed, due to which he is
cleansed from them all, and in the Hereafter he has no sins to account
for.
Shaykhul-Islm Ibn Taymiyyah said:
The occurrence of afflictions are actually a form of blessing, since
they are an expiation for sins committed and they call for a person to
have sabr - for which he is duly rewarded. Likewise they cause
the person to turn to Allh in repentance, being humble and submissive
before Him, whilst at the same time turning away from hoping in any of
the creation. There are - besides these - other great advantages.
Thus, those afflictions which befall a person are actually the cause
of Allh wiping away his sins, and this is one of the greatest
blessings. So the occurrence of afflictions are a source of mercy and
bounty, providing such a person does not enter into that which is a
cause for even greater disobedience than before. For this affliction
will then become a cause of great evil to the personsDn.
Indeed, there are people who - when afflicted with a trial or a
affliction; such as poverty, illness or starvation - causes hypocrisy to
sprout in them, or causes their hearts to become diseased, or it causes
them to fall into ingratitude and disbelief, or to abandon certain
obligations or commit certain prohibited acts - all of which is
extremely harmful to ones Dn. So to remain safe from, and to
be protected against such afflictions and trials, is better for a
person, since the afflictions and trials - rather than being a source of
blessings - becomes a source of great injury. However, if the person
hadsabr and remained obedient, then such an affliction would have been the cause of mercy and blessings from Allh - the Mighty and Majestic -which necessitates praising Him.
So whosoever is afflicted with a calamity and is provided with sabr, then this sabr
is a blessing for the person and a mercy for him, since his sins are
expiated due to it. Likewise his Lord bestows upon him praises and
prayers, as Allh - the Majestic - says: They are those on whom are the blessings and praises from their Lord and His mercy. They are the ones who are guided.
[27] Such a person is also forgiven by his Lord for his sins, and is
raised to higher ranks - all of this is due to the one who has sabr. [28]
The saying of the Prophet: Whenever Allh intends evil for a servant, He postpones the punishment until the Day of Judgement. means: such a persons punishment is delayed until the Hereafter, where he will receive severe punishment.
Al-Azz (d.1070H) said:
Such a person is not punished in this world, so that in the Hereafter
he can be punished for his sins in a way that he fully deserved. [29]
In the above hadth is a lesson and a reminder that one must have
good expectations in Allh and a good opinion about Him with regard to
what He has decreed for a person, as Allh - the Most High - says: It
is possible that you hate a thing and it is good for you, and love a
thing and it is evil for you. Allh knows and you do not know.
[30]
Rewards are Proportional to Afflictions


The Prophet sallallhu alayhi wa sallam said: Reward
is directly proportional to the affliction. If Allh loves a people, He
inflicts them with a calamity. Whoever accepts it, Allh is pleased with
them, and whoever resents it, Allh is displeased with them.
[31]
Likewise, the Prophet sallallhu alayhi wa sallam said: Whenever
Allh loves a people, He sends affliction upon them. So whoever is
patient, is one of the patient-ones, and whoever resents it, is one of
the resenters.
[32]
The meaning of the first hadth is: the greater the affliction, the
greater the reward. And it is said: Indeed, afflictions bring about a
reward as well as expiating sins. This was the preferred saying of Ibn
al-Qayyim that the one afflicted with a calamity is not only rewarded
for it, but his sins are expiated as well. However, if this affliction
was the cause of him doing certain righteous actions - such as having sabr,
contentment with the Decree of Allh, repenting to Allh or asking for
His forgiveness - then the person will be rewarded for such actions as
well. Because of this it is said that the meaning of the hadth is:
Indeed, the reward is proportional to the affliction, providing there
is sabr and expectation of reward.
Similarly, in the hadth of Sad: The Prophet sallallhu alayhi wa sallam was asked: Who from mankind suffers the greatest afflictions? He replied: The
Prophets, then those most like them, then those most like them. A
person is afflicted with calamities in comparisons to his Dn, so if he
is firm in his Dn, then his afflictions are strong and if he is weak in
his Dn, then his afflictions are lighter. A person is afflicted with
calamities until he is left walking upon the face of this earth without
any sins.
[33]
This hadth and its like are from the proofs for Tawhd. Since if a person knew that the Prophets and the awliy
(the friends of Allh) are themselves afflicted with calamities and
that none can remove these afflictions from them except Allh, then it
will be known that they can bring neither benefit nor ward of harm to
themselves - so how can they ward off harm for others! Thus rather than
turning to the Prophets and righteous people for the removal of harm, or
relief from worries and grief, one should turn directly to Allh alone -
the One who is able to accomplish this.
Attaining Tranquility


And ar-Rid (the pleasure of Allh) - which occurs in the saying of the Prophet sallallhu alayhi wa sallam: So whosoever is pleased, then Allh is pleased with him. - is one of the Attributes that Allh has described Himself with in various places in His Book, such as His saying: Their
reward are Gardens of Adan, beneath which rivers flow, to dwell therein
forever. Allh is well pleased with them, as they are with Him.
[34]
The way of the Salaf (the Pious Predecessors) and those who follow them from Ahlus-Sunnah
(the followers of the Sunnah) is to affirm those attributes which Allh
has affirmed for Himself, or which have been affirmed by His Messenger sallallhu alayhi wa sallam - in a way which befits His Majesty and Greatness - without tamthl (likening Allh to any of His creation), and without tatl (divesting Allh of His Attributes). So when Allh - the Most High - is pleased with any one, then such a person has acquired all good and excellence and is safe from all evils.
Ar-Rid is: a servants surrendering his affairs to Allh,
whilst having a good opinion about Him and expecting His reward. Such a
person will then experience tranquility and joy, love of Allh and
reliance upon Him.
Ibn Masd - radiallhu anhu - said:
Indeed Allh - from His Justice and Fairness - made delight and tranquility the fits of yaqn(certainty) and rid (pleasure). And He made grief, anxiety and worry the result of doubt and resentment. [35]
The meaning of resentment being: A dislike for something, with the
absence of pleasure. [36] Thus, whosoever resents what Allh has
decreed, then Allh will resent that person; and this is sufficient as a
punishment from Allh. Also, from the above hadth, some Scholars have
deduced that rid (contentment and pleasure) with the Decree of
Allh is obligatory - this being the view of Ibn Aql. However,
al-Qd Ab Yal did not consider it to be obligatory [but rather
preferable], and this was the preferred view of Shaykhul-Islm Ibn
Taymiyyah and Ibn al-Qayyim. [37]
Shaykhul-Islm Ibn Taymiyyah said:
Just as there is a specific command attached to having sabr (patience), there is, however, no such command for having rid (contentment and pleasure). Rather, there is a praise and an excellence for those who have rid with the Decree of Allh. He further said: The narration: Whosoever does not have sabr with My afflictions, nor have rid with My Decree, has taken a Lord other than Me. [38] This narration is one of the Isrliyyt and is not authentically related from the Prophet sallallhu alayhi wa sallam. [39]
Shaykhul-Islm Ibn Taymiyyah also said:
Indeed, there is a station higher than [both sabr and] rid, and that is to show shukr (gratitude) to Allh for the affliction, since this is the cause of receiving excellence and bounties. [40]

References


1. Edited and adapted from Fathul-Majd li Sharh Kitbit-Tawhd (2/603-615); Chapter: From mn (faith) in Allh is to have sabr(patience) with the Decree of Allh.
2. Related by Ibn al-Qayyim in Madrijus-Slikn (2/152).
3. Related by Muslim (no.223) and Ahmad (5/343), from Ab Mlik al-Ashar radiallhu anhu.
4. Related by al-Bukhr (no.1469) and Muslim (no.l053), from Ab Sad al-Khudr radiallhu anhu.
5. Related by al-Bukhr (1 l/303) in talq form, and it has been related in connected form by Imm Ahmad in az-Zuhd with a Sahh isnd - as al-Hfidh Ibn Hajar mentioned in Fathul-Br (11/303).
6. Related by al-Llik in Sharh Usl Itiqd Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jamah (no.1659), al-Bayhaq in Shabul-mn a n d Ab S h a y b a h i n Kitbul-mn (no.130), with a slightly different wording.
7 . M a d r i j u s-S l i k n (2/156) of Ibn al-Qayyim.
8. Srah at-Taghbun 64:11
9. Tasfr Qurnul-Adhm (g/164) of Ibn Kathr.
10. Srah al-Hadd 57:22
11. Srah al- Baqarah 2:155-157
12. Tasfr Qurnul-Adhm (8/163).
13. Related by Ibn Jarr at-Tabar in Jmiul-Bayn an Tablil-Qurn (28/123), Abdur-Razzq in his Tafsr (3/95) and also as-Suyt in ad-Duwul-Manthr (8/183). Its like is also related by al-Bukhr in talq form (8/652) from Ibn Masd.
14. Tababbut-Tabdbb (7/276) of Ibn Hajar al-Asqaln.
15. Related by Muslim(no.67) and Ahmad (2/377), from Ab Hurayrah radiallhu anhu.
16. Related by Muslim (no.82), Ab Dwd (no.4679) and at-Tirmidh (no.2621), from Jbir ibn Abdullh radiallhu anhu.
17. Related by al-Bukhr (no.1294) and Muslim (no.103), from Ibn Masd radiallhu anhu.
18. Fathul-Br (3/164) of Ibn Hajar.
19. Itqid as-Sirtul-Mustaqm (l/204) of Shaykhul-Islm Ibn Taymiyyah.
20. Sahh: Related by Ibn Mjah (no.1584) and also Ibn Hibbn (no.737). Al-Bawsr authenticated it in Masbibuz-Zajjah(1/521).
21. Related by Ahmad (6/31), from ishah radiallhu anh.
22. Related by al-Bukhr (no.4462) and Ibn Mjah (nos.1629- 1630), from Anas radiallhu anhu.
23. As az-Zarkash mentions in Sharh Mukhtasarul-Kharq (2/356).
24. Related by al-Bukhr (no.1303) and Muslim (no.2315), from Anas and Asm bint Yazd radiallhu anhum.
25. Related by al-Bukhr (no.1283) and Muslim (no.923).
26. Sahh: Related by at-Tirmidh (no.2398) and al-Hkim in al-Mustadrak (1/340), from Anas radiallhu anhu. It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albn in as-Sahhah (no.1220).
27. Srah al-Baqarah 2:155-157
28. Abridged from Majmul-Fatw (10/48) of Ibn Taymiyyah.
29. As-Sirjul-Munr (l/88) of al-Azz.
30. Srah al-Baqarah 2:216
31. Hasan: Related by at-Tirmidh (no.2398) and Ibn Majh (no.4021), from Anas radiallhu anhu. It was authenticated by al-Albn in as-Sahhah (no.146).
32. Sahh: Related by Ahmad (5/427), from Mahmd ibn Lubayd radiallhu anhu. It was authenticated by al-Mundhar in at-Targhb wat-Tarhb (4/283), al-Haythamin Majmauz-Zawid (2/291) and Ibn Hajar in Fathul-Br (10/108).
33. Sahh: Related by Ahmad (l/172), at-Tirmidh
(no.2398) and Ibn Mjah (no.4023). It was authenticated by al-Albn in
as-Sahhah (no.143).
34. Srah al-Bayyinah 98:8
35. Related by Ibn Ab Duny in Kitbur-Rid (no.94) and also al-Bayhaq in ShuAbl-mn (no.205).
36. An-Nihyah f Gharbil-Hadth (2/350) of Ibn al-Athr.
37. Madrijus-Slikn (2/171,184) of Ibn al-Qayyim.
38. Daf Jiddan: Related by at-Tabarn in al-Kabr (22/320), Ibn Hibbn in al-Majrhn (1.324) and al-Khatb in at-Talkbs(39/2) all by way of Sad ibn Ziyyd. Al-Haytham said in al-Majma (7/207): In it is Sad ibn Ziyyd who is matrk(abandoned). And al-Hfidh al-Irq said in Takbrjul-Ihy (3/296): Its isnd is weak. And al-Manw said: Daf Jiddan (very weak) as occurs in ad-Dafah (no.505).
39. Ibn al-Qayyim related this in Madrijus-Slikn (2/171).
40. Majmul-Fatw (11/260) of Ibn Taymiyyah.
By Abdur-Rahmn ibn Hasan


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